Optical fiber (fiber) is currently one of the most reliable materials for transmitting information and organizing communication lines. The optical cable consists of glass or plastic cores wrapped in a special braid. The walls of the cores are made in such a way that they are very smooth.
How fiber optic cable works
Each core of the optical cable is arranged in such a way that light beams are reflected from its walls and fly on. Everyone knows that light is the fastest matter in the world. But the speed of data transmission through optical fiber is slightly lower, about 1 billion kilometers per hour, due to the refraction of the rays. The attenuation rate of the signal in the optical cable depends on the type of core. In a single-mode cable, a signal can be transmitted up to 10 km, in a multimode cable up to 2-3 km. Much depends on the material from which optics are made.
The electrical signal is supplied to a special device (media converter) via copper wires and converted into light for further transmission through optical networks. At the end of the path, it is received by the subscriber’s device and again converted to electric. The more powerful the light source, the greater the distance the signal can be transmitted. The optical network itself is independent of power consumption and is passive.
Optical Cable Benefits
The optical cable does not conduct electric current; accordingly, it can be used safely in everyday life, as it is not subject to ignition. It can also be used safely in various manufacturing areas - the oil refining industry and explosive facilities.
An optical cable is not characterized by the accumulation of static electricity; therefore, its use is also possible at high voltage facilities.
Optical fiber can be laid in water, in the ground, in various aggressive environments. But, it is important that signal transmission over optical networks is possible over long distances. In order to increase the distance for transmitting an optical signal, a special device, a repeater, is installed at the boundary of the capabilities of the fiber optic cable.
The connection of optical fibers occurs with the help of connectors (connectors) or welding with the help of special equipment. When connecting, optical couplings are used.
Fiber optic cable installation
A feature of the design and installation of optical networks is that the optical fiber cannot be bent at an angle of less than 110 degrees, unlike a conventional copper cable. If the bending angle is large, the cable may get damaged and this will result in signal loss.
The installation of optical fiber is carried out in a special corrugated tube for greater security, since the fiber has low strength.
Fiber optic welding
The optical cable is welded using special equipment - an optical welding machine. The use of such equipment leads to the creation of poor-quality joints at the welding site, which leads to a weakening of the signal. Also, Chinese devices break down very often. Expensive quality machines withstand up to 2000 welds. After that, you just need to replace the electrodes in them and continue using it. In the market you can find used welding machines.